A REVIEW ON EFFECT OF WEEDS IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) AND THEIR MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
Amita Gyawali, Rita Bhandari, Pravin Budhathoki and Sangam Bhattrai
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in the world. It has a vital role in the human diet globally, contributing to the daily calorie and protein intake than any other cereal crops. The productivity of wheat is low because of different biotic and abiotic factors. Weeds are one of the most important competitors of wheat crop. Understanding the nature of weeds is important to develop techniques to reduce their effects on the crops. Weeds, through competition with other crops, almost always have a deleterious effect on them and may be economically and environmentally detrimental. For world food sustainability controlling the weed-induced yield losses in the wheat is of prime importance because the weeds compete with the crop and also possess deleterious effects. There are various weed species that occur in the wheat crop field and they possess effects on the growth phases of wheat. Allelopathic effects of weeds on the germination, growth and yields on the crops are recorded. The variation in the vegetative traits such as the number of fertile tillers, spike length, grains/spike due to weeds is reflected ultimately in grain yield and quality. Both broad leaf weeds and narrow leaf weeds infest the wheat crop causing a 13.1% reduction in total grain yield globally. Although tillage operations and herbicides use have played an important role in weed control, but their indiscriminate use has resulted in unacceptable consequences on humans as well as vital ecosystems along with the evolution of herbicides resistance genotypes. Through a combination of integrated weed management approaches the crop competitiveness against the weed can be increased which results in the reduction of the weed-induced yield losses in wheat. The main purpose of this study is to review the competition of weeds in wheat crops as well as its effects on wheat growth and yield components. It also highlights the management strategies which could minimize the inhibitory effect of weeds on wheat crops.